822181 :Logic


Voertaal Nederlands
Werkvorm: 14x2 hours lectures, mixed with practicals (Collegerooster)
Tentamenvorm: written exam, midtern (Tentamenrooster)
Studielast:6 ECTS credits
Inschrijving:Enrollment via Blackboard before start of lectures
Blackboard informatieLink to Blackboard (Als u de melding 'Guest are not allowed in this course' krijgt, dient u nog bij Blackboard in te loggen)


dr. R.A. Muskens (coördinator)

Doel van de cursus (alleen in het Engels beschikbaar)

On the basis of their knowledge and comprehension of techniques covered in class, students will

1) be able to test the validity of arguments and the consistency of sets of sentences in propositional logic and predicate logic and

2) be able to analyse and formalise English sentences with the help of the languages of propositional logic and predicate logic.

Inhoud van de cursus (alleen in het Engels beschikbaar)

Reasoning is a central human activity. We reason every day about things that are important to us. We also plan our activities and planning is a form of reasoning. Reasoning and argumentation in science and philosophy are merely extensions of what people do in everyday life. We reason in order to support our views and theories, but there is also a critical use of reasoning. It can be used to scrutinize arguments (one\'s own arguments as well as those of others), to ask for the premises on which these arguments are based, and to investigate whether theories are consistent. Often it turns out that premises were hidden and/or unacceptable and it may also come to light that a position under investigation is inconsistent (i.e. contradicts itself).

Logic is concerned with questions relating to this. Which arguments are valid? When does someone contradict himself? Such questions can be answered with the help of the concept of truth in possible situations. An argument is valid in this approach if in any possible situation in which its premises are true its conclusion must also be true and a set of statements is inconsistent if there is no possible situation in which these statements are simultaneously true. The centrality of the idea of truth in a possible situation makes it the case that modern logic can be interpreted as a simplified model of the relation between language and reality. Philosophical questions regarding these notions arise immediately: What is truth? What are possible situations? What structure should we ascribe to those possible situations and what are therefore our ontological commitments when we make use of these notions?

We thus see that logic interacts strongly with philosophical questions about reasoning, language, thought, and meaning. Aristotle, who created the subject virtually ab ovo about 2350 years ago, already realised that this was the case. Aristotle was a genius and his logical work has withstood the times until the nineteenth century when Gottlob Frege revolutionised the subject and gave us a radical generalization of Aristotelian logic. Nowadays logic is an interdisciplinary subject. It does not only play a central critical role in philosophy (it is also self-critical---logicians study the assumptions on which their discipline is built and often reject some of these), but is also of fundamental importance in mathematics, computer science and linguistics.

There are now many logics, but one of them is generally agreed to take a central place and should be studied before all others. This is predicate logic, the theory that will be the subject of this course. We will also treat propositional logic, a theory that is part of predicate logic and that will serve as a first step towards the full theory.

Verplichte literatuur

  1. W. Hodges, Logic, Penguin, 2001.

Verplicht voor

  • Bachelor CIW: Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence ( 2017 )